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/****************************************************************************
**
** Copyright (C) 2012 Digia Plc and/or its subsidiary(-ies).
** Contact: http://www.qt-project.org/legal
**
** This file is part of the documentation of the Qt Toolkit.
**
** $QT_BEGIN_LICENSE:FDL$
** Commercial License Usage
** Licensees holding valid commercial Qt licenses may use this file in
** accordance with the commercial license agreement provided with the
** Software or, alternatively, in accordance with the terms contained in
** a written agreement between you and Digia.  For licensing terms and
** conditions see http://qt.digia.com/licensing.  For further information
** use the contact form at http://qt.digia.com/contact-us.
**
** GNU Free Documentation License Usage
** Alternatively, this file may be used under the terms of the GNU Free
** Documentation License version 1.3 as published by the Free Software
** Foundation and appearing in the file included in the packaging of
** this file.  Please review the following information to ensure
** the GNU Free Documentation License version 1.3 requirements
** will be met: http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.
** $QT_END_LICENSE$
**
****************************************************************************/

/*!
    \page modelview.html
    \ingroup tutorials
    \startpage {index.html}{Qt Reference Documentation}

    \title Model/View Tutorial
    \brief An introduction to ModelView programming

    Every UI developer should know about ModelView programming and the goal of
    this tutorial is to provide you with an easily understandable introduction
    to this topic.

    Table, list and tree widgets are components frequently used in GUIs. There
    are 2 different ways how these widgets can access their data. The
    traditional way involves widgets which include internal containers for
    storing data. This approach is very intuitive, however, in many non-trivial
    applications, it leads to data synchronization issues.
    The second approach is model/view programming, in
    which widgets do not maintain internal data containers. They access external
    data through a standardized interface and therefore avoid data duplication.
    This may seem complicated at first, but once you take a closer look, it is
    not only easy to grasp, but the many benefits of model/view programming also
    become clearer.

    \image treeview.png

    In the process, we will learn about some basic technologies provided by Qt,
    such as:

    \list
    \li The difference between standard and model/view widgets
    \li Adapters between forms and models
    \li Developing a simple model/view application
    \li Predefined models
    \li Intermediate topics such as:
      \list
      \li Tree views
      \li Selection
      \li Delegates
      \li Debugging with model test
      \endlist
    \endlist

    You will also learn whether your new application can be written easier with
    model/view programming or if classic widgets will work just as well.

    This tutorial includes example code for you to edit and integrate into your
    project. The tutorial's source code is located in Qt's
    \c examples/tutorials/modelview directory.

    For more detailed information you may also want to look at the
    \l{model-view-programming.html}{reference documentation}


    \section1 1. Introduction

    Model/View is a technology used to separate data from views in widgets that
    handle data sets. Standard widgets are not designed for separating data
    from views and this is why Qt 4 has two different types of widgets. Both
    types of widgets look the same, but they interact with data differently.

    \table
        \row
            \li  Standard widgets use data that is part of the widget.
            \li  \image standardwidget.png
        \row
            \li  View classes operate on external data (the model)
            \li  \image modelview.png
    \endtable

    \section2 1.1 Standard Widgets

    Let's have a closer look at a standard table widget. A table widget is a 2D
    array of the data elements that the user can change. The table widget can be
    integrated into a program flow by reading and writing the data elements that
    the table widget provides. 
    This method is very intuitive and useful in many applications, but displaying 
    and editing a database table with a standard table widget can be problematic.
    Two copies of the data have to be coordinated: one outside the
    widget; one inside the widget. The developer is responsible for
    synchronizing both versions. Besides this, the tight coupling of presentation and data
    makes it harder to write unit tests.

    \section2 1.2 Model/View to the Rescue

    Model/view stepped up to provide a solution that uses a more versatile
    architecture. Model/view eliminates the data consistency problems that may
    occur with standard widgets. Model/view also makes it easier to use more
    than one view of the same data because one model can be passed on to many
    views. The most important difference is that model/view widgets do not store
    data behind the table cells. In fact, they operate directly from your data.
    Since view classes do not know your data's structure, you need to provide a
    wrapper to make your data conform to the QAbstractItemModel interface. A
    view uses this interface to read from and write to your data. Any instance
    of a class that implements QAbstractItemModel is said to be a model. Once
    the view receives a pointer to a model, it will read and display its content
    and be its editor.

    \section2 1.3 Overview of the Model/View Widgets

    Here is an overview of the model/view widgets and their corresponding
    standard widgets.

    \table
        \header
            \li  Widget
            \li  Standard Widget\br
                (an item based convenience class)
            \li  Model/View View Class\br
                (for use with external data)
        \row
            \li  \inlineimage listview.png
            \li  \l QListWidget
            \li  \l QListView
        \row
            \li  \inlineimage tableview.png
            \li  \l QTableWidget
            \li  \l QTableView
        \row
            \li  \inlineimage treeview.png
            \li  \l QTreeWidget
            \li  \l QTreeView
        \row
            \li  \inlineimage columnview.png
            \li
            \li  \l QColumnView shows a tree as a hierarchy of lists
        \row
            \li  \inlineimage modelview-combobox.png
            \li {2, 1} \l QComboBox can work as both a view class and also
                      as a traditional widget
    \endtable

    \section2 1.4 Using Adapters between Forms and Models

    Having adapters between forms and models can come in handy.

    We can edit data stored in tables directly from within the table itself, but
    it's much more comfortable to edit data in text fields. There is no direct
    model/view counterpart that separates data and views for widgets that
    operate on one value (QLineEdit, QCheckBox ...) instead of a dataset, so we
    need an adapter in order to connect the form to the source of data.

    \l QDataWidgetMapper is a great solution because it maps form widgets to a
    table row and makes it very easy to build forms for database tables.

    \image widgetmapper.png

    Another example of an adapter is \l QCompleter. Qt has \l QCompleter for
    providing auto-completions in Qt widgets such as \l QComboBox and, as shown
    below, \l QLineEdit. \l QCompleter uses a model as its data source.

    \image qcompleter.png


    \section1 2. A Simple Model/View Application
    If you want to develop a model/view application, where should you start? 
    We recommend starting with a simple example and extending it step-by-step. 
    This makes understanding the architecture a lot easier. Trying to understand 
    the model/view architecture in detail before invoking the IDE has proven 
    to be less convenient for many developers. It is substantially easier to 
    start with a simple model/view application that has demo data. Give it a 
    try! Simply replace the data in the examples below with your own.

    Below are 7 very simple and independent applications that show different
    sides of model/view programming. The source code can be found inside the
    \c{examples/tutorials/modelview} directory.

    \section2 2.1 A Read Only Table

    We start with an application that uses a QTableView to show data. We will
    add editing capabilities later.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/1_readonly/main.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/1_readonly/main.cpp Quoting ModelView Tutorial

    We have the usual \l {modelview-part2-main-cpp.html}{main()} function:

    Here is the interesting part: We create an instance of MyModel and use 
    \l{QTableView::setModel()}{tableView.setModel(&myModel);} to pass a
    pointer of it to \l{QTableView}{tableView}. \l{QTableView}{tableView}
    will invoke the methods of the pointer it has received to find out two
    things:

    \list
       \li How many rows and columns should be displayed.
       \li What content should be printed into each cell.
    \endlist

    The model needs some code to respond to this.

    We have a table data set, so let's start with QAbstractTableModel since it
    is easier to use than the more general QAbstractItemModel.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/1_readonly/mymodel.h)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/1_readonly/mymodel.h Quoting ModelView Tutorial

    QAbstractTableModel requires the implementation of three abstract methods.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/1_readonly/mymodel.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/1_readonly/mymodel.cpp Quoting ModelView Tutorial

    The number of rows and columns is provided by
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::rowCount()}{MyModel::rowCount()} and
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::columnCount()}{MyModel::columnCount()}. When the view
    has to know what the cell's text is, it calls the method
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::data()}{MyModel::data()}. Row and column information
    is specified with parameter \c index and the role is set to
    \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{Qt::DisplayRole}. Other roles are covered in the next
    section. In our example, the data that should be displayed is generated. In
    a real application, \c MyModel would have a member called \c MyData, which
    serves as the target for all reading and writing operations.

    This small example demonstrates the passive nature of a model. The model
    does not know when it will be used or which data is needed. It simply
    provides data each time the view requests it.

    What happens when the model's data needs to be changed? How does the view
    realize that data has changed and needs to be read again? The model has to
    emit a signal that indicates what range of cells has changed.  This will be
    demonstrated in section 2.3.

    \section2 2.2 Extending the Read Only Example with Roles

    In addition to controlling what text the view displays, the model also
    controls the text's appearance. When we slightly change the model, we get
    the following result: \image readonlytable_role.png

    In fact, nothing except for the \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{data()} method
    needs to be changed to set fonts, background colour, alignment and a
    checkbox.
    Below is the \l{QAbstractItemModel::data()}{data()} method that produces the
    result shown above. The difference is that this time we use parameter int
    role to return different pieces of information depending on its value.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/2_formatting/mymodel.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/2_formatting/mymodel.cpp Quoting ModelView Tutorial

    Each formatting property will be requested from the model with a separate
    call to the \l{QAbstractItemModel::data()}{data()} method. The \c role
    parameter is used to let the model know which property is being requested:

    \table
        \header
            \li \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{enum Qt::ItemDataRole}
            \li  Meaning
            \li  Type
        \row
            \li \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{}Qt::DisplayRole
            \li  text
            \li  QString
        \row
            \li \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{Qt::FontRole}
            \li  font
            \li  QFont
        \row
            \li \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{BackgroundRole}
            \li  brush for the background of the cell
            \li  QBrush
        \row
            \li \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{Qt::TextAlignmentRole}
            \li  text alignment
            \li  \l{Qt::AlignmentFlag}{enum Qt::AlignmentFlag}
        \row
        \li {1, 3}  \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{Qt::CheckStateRole}
        \li {1, 3} suppresses checkboxes with \l{QVariant}{QVariant()},

              sets checkboxes with \l{Qt::CheckState}{Qt::Checked}

              or \l{Qt::CheckState}{Qt::Unchecked}
        \li {1, 3}  \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{enum Qt::ItemDataRole}
    \endtable

    Refer to the Qt namespace documentation to learn more about the
    \l{Qt::ItemDataRole}{Qt::ItemDataRole} enum's capabilities.

    Now we need to determine how using a separated model impacts the
    application's performance, so let's trace how often the view calls the
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{data()} method. In order to track how often the
    view calls the model, we have put a debug statement in the
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{data()} method, which logs onto the error output
    stream. In our small example, \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{data()} will be
    called 42 times.
    Each time you hover the cursor over the field,
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{data()} will be called again -- 7 times for
    each cell. That's why it is important to make sure that your data is
    available when \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{data()} is invoked and expensive
    lookup operations are cached.

    \section2 2.3 A Clock inside a Table Cell

    \image clock.png

    We still have a read only table, but this time the content changes every
    second because we are showing the current time.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/3_changingmodel/mymodel.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/3_changingmodel/mymodel.cpp quoting mymodel_QVariant

    Something is missing to make the clock tick. We need to tell the view every
    second that the time has changed and that it needs to be read again. We do
    this with a timer. In the constructor, we set its interval to 1 second and
    connect its timeout signal.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/3_changingmodel/mymodel.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/3_changingmodel/mymodel.cpp quoting mymodel_a

    Here is the corresponding slot:

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/3_changingmodel/mymodel.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/3_changingmodel/mymodel.cpp quoting mymodel_b

    We ask the view to read the data in the top left cell again by emitting the
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{dataChanged()} signal.  Note that we did not
    explicitly connect the \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{dataChanged()} signal to the
    view. This happened automatically when we called \l{QTableView::}{setModel()}.

    \section2 2.4 Setting up Headers for Columns and Rows

    Headers can be hidden via a view method: \c{tableView->verticalHeader()->hide();}
    \image modelview-header.png

    The header content, however, is set via the model, so we reimplement the
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::headerData()}{headerData()} method:

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/4_headers/mymodel.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/4_headers/mymodel.cpp quoting mymodel_c

    Note that method \l{QAbstractItemModel::headerData()}{headerData()} also has
    a parameter role which has the same meaning as in
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::data()}{MyModel::data()}.

    \section2 2.5 The Minimal Editing Example

    In this example, we are going to build an application that automatically
    populates a window title with content by repeating values entered into table
    cells. To be able to access the window title easily we put the QTableView in
    a QMainWindow.

    The model decides whether editing capabilities are available. We only have
    to modify the model in order for the available editing capabilities to be
    enabled. This is done by reimplementing the following virtual methods:
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{setData()} and \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{flags()}.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/5_edit/mymodel.h)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/5_edit/mymodel.h Quoting ModelView Tutorial

    We use \c the two-dimensional array QString \c m_gridData to store our data.
    This makes \c m_gridData the core of \c MyModel.  The rest of \c MyModel acts
    like a wrapper and adapts \c m_gridData to the QAbstractItemModel
    interface. We have also introduced the \c editCompleted() signal, which
    makes it possible to transfer the modified text to the window title.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/5_edit/mymodel.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/5_edit/mymodel.cpp quoting mymodel_e

    \l{QAbstractItemModel::setData()}{setData()} will be called each time the
    user edits a cell. The \c index parameter tells us which field has been
    edited and \c value  provides the result of the editing process. The role
    will always be set to \l Qt::EditRole because our cells only contain text.
    If a checkbox were present and user permissions are set to allow the
    checkbox to be selected, calls would also be made with the role set to
    \l Qt::CheckStateRole.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/5_edit/mymodel.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/5_edit/mymodel.cpp quoting mymodel_f

    Various properties of a cell can be adjusted with
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::flags()}{flags()}.

    Returning \l{Qt::ItemFlag}{Qt::ItemIsSelectable | Qt::ItemIsEditable | Qt::ItemIsEnabled}
    is enough to show an editor that a cell can be selected.

    If editing one cell modifies more data than the data in that particular
    cell, the model must emit a \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{dataChanged()} signal
    in order for the data that has been changed to be read.


    \section1 3. Intermediate Topics

    \section2 3.1 TreeView

    You can convert the example above into an application with a tree view.
    Simply replace QTableView with QTreeView, which results in a read/write
    tree. No changes have to be made to the model. The tree won't have any
    hierarchies because there aren't any hierarchies in the model itself.

    \image dummy_tree.png

    QListView, QTableView and QTreeView all use a model abstraction, which is a
    merged list, table and tree. This makes it possible to use several different
    types of view classes from the same model.

    \image list_table_tree.png

    This is how our example model looks so far:

    \image example_model.png

    We want to present a real tree. We have wrapped our data in the examples
    above in order to make a model. This time we use QStandardItemModel, which
    is a container for hierarchical data that also implements
    QAbstractItemModel. To show a tree, QStandardItemModel must be populated
    with \l{QStandardItem}s, which are able to hold all the standard properties
    of items like text, fonts, checkboxes or brushes.

    \image tree_2_with_algorithm.png

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/6_treeview/mainwindow.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/6_treeview/mainwindow.cpp Quoting ModelView Tutorial

    We simply instantiate a QStandardItemModel and add a couple of
    \l{QStandardItem}{QStandardItems} to the constructor. We can then make a
    hierarchical data structure because a QStandardItem can hold other
    \l{QStandardItem}{QStandardItems}. Nodes are collapsed and expanded within
    the view.

    \section2 3.2 Working with Selections

    We want to access a selected item's content in order to output it into the
    window title together with the hierarchy level.

    \image selection2.png

    So let's create a couple of items:

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/7_selections/mainwindow.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/7_selections/mainwindow.cpp quoting modelview_a

    Views manage selections within a separate selection model, which can be
    retrieved with the \l{QAbstractItemView::}{selectionModel()} method. We
    retrieve the selection Model in order to connect a slot to its
    \l{QAbstractItemView::}{selectionChanged()} signal.

    (file source: examples/tutorials/modelview/7_selections/mainwindow.cpp)
    \snippet tutorials/modelview/7_selections/mainwindow.cpp quoting modelview_b

    We get the model index that corresponds to the selection by calling
    \l{QItemSelectionModel::currentIndex()}{treeView->selectionModel()->currentIndex()}
    and we get the the field's string by using the model index. Then we just
    calculate the item's \c hierarchyLevel.  Top level items do not have parents
    and the \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{parent()} method will return a default
    constructed \l{QModelIndex}{QModelIndex()}. This is why we use the
    \l{QAbstractItemModel::}{parent()} method to iterate to the top level while
    counting the steps performed during iteration.

    The selection model (as shown above) can be retrieved, but it can also be
    set with \l{QAbstractItemView}{QAbstractItemView::setSelectionModel}. This
    is how it's possible to have 3 view classes with synchronized selections
    because only one instance of a selection model is used. To share a selection
    model between 3 views use \l{QAbstractItemView::}{selectionModel()} and
    assign the result to the second and third view class with
    \l{QAbstractItemView::}{setSelectionModel()}.

    \section2 3.3 Predefined Models

    The typical way to use model/view is to wrap specific data to make it usable
    with view classes. Qt, however, also provides predefined models for common
    underlying data structures. If one of the available data structures is
    suitable for your application, a predefined model can be a good choice.

    \table
        \row
            \li  QStringListModel
            \li  Stores a list of strings
        \row
            \li  QStandardItemModel
            \li  Stores arbitrary hierarchical items
        \row
            \li  QFileSystemModel\br
                QDirModel
            \li  Encapsulate the local file system
        \row
            \li  QSqlQueryModel
            \li  Encapsulate an SQL result set
        \row
            \li  QSqlTableModel
            \li  Encapsulates an SQL table
        \row
            \li  QSqlRelationalTableModel
            \li  Encapsulates an SQL table with foreign keys
        \row
            \li  QSortFilterProxyModel
            \li  Sorts and/or filters another model

    \endtable

    \section2 3.4 Delegates

    In all examples so far, data is presented as text or a checkbox in a cell
    and is edited as text or a checkbox. The component that provides these
    presentation and editing services is called a \e delegate. We are only just
    beginning to work with the delegate because the view uses a default
    delegate. But imagine that we want to have a different editor (e.g., a
    slider or a drop down list) Or imagine that we want to present data as
    graphics.
    Let's take a look at an example called \l{Star Delegate Example}{Star
    Delegate}, in which stars are used to show a rating:

    \image stardelegate.png

    The view has a \l{QAbstractItemView::}{setItemDelegate()} method that
    replaces the default delegate and installs a custom delegate.
    A new delegate can be written by creating a class that inherits from
    QStyledItemDelegate. In order to write a delegate that displays stars and
    has no input capabilities, we only need to override 2 methods.

    \code
     class StarDelegate : public QStyledItemDelegate
     {
         Q_OBJECT
     public:
         StarDelegate(QWidget *parent = 0);
         void paint(QPainter *painter, const QStyleOptionViewItem &option,
                    const QModelIndex &index) const;
         QSize sizeHint(const QStyleOptionViewItem &option,
                        const QModelIndex &index) const;
     };
    \endcode

    \l{QStyledItemDelegate::}{paint()} draws stars depending on the content of
    the underlying data.  The data can be looked up by calling
    \l{QModelIndex::data()}{index.data()}. The delegate's
    \l{QAbstractItemDelegate::}{sizeHint()} method is used to obtain each
    star's dimensions, so the the cell will provide enough height and width to
    accommodate the stars.

    Writing custom delegates is the right choice if you want to show your data
    with a custom graphical representation inside the grid of the view class. If
    you want to leave the grid, you would not use a custom delegate but a custom
    view class.

    Other references to delegates in Qt Documentation:

    \list
    \li \l{Spin Box Delegate Example}
    \li \l{QAbstractItemDelegate}{QAbstractItemDelegate Class Reference}
    \li \l{QSqlRelationalDelegate}{QSqlRelationalDelegate Class Reference}
    \li \l{QStyledItemDelegate}{QStyledItemDelegate Class Reference}
    \li \l{QItemDelegate}{QItemDelegate Class Reference}
    \endlist


    \section2 3.5 Debugging with ModelTest

    The passive nature of models provides new challenges for programmers.
    Inconsistencies in the model can cause the application to crash. Since the
    model is hit by numerous calls from the view, it is hard to find out which
    call has crashed the application and which operation has introduced the
    problem.

    Qt Labs provides software called
    \l{http://labs.qt.nokia.com/page/Projects/Itemview/Modeltest}{ModelTest},
    which checks models while your programming is running. Every time the model
    is changed, ModelTest scans the model and reports errors with an assert.
    This is especially important for tree models, since their hierarchical
    nature leaves many possibilities for subtle inconsistencies.

    Unlike view classes, ModelTest uses out of range indexes to test the model.
    This means your application may crash with ModelTest even if it runs
    perfectly without it. So you also need to handle all of the indexes that are
    out of range when using ModelTest.


    \section1 4. Good Sources of Additional Information

    \section2 4.1 Books

    Model/View programming is covered quite extensively in the documentation of
    Qt but also in several good books.

    \list 1
       \li \b{C++ GUI Programming with Qt 4} / Jasmin Blanchette, Mark Summerfield,
          \e{Prentice Hall, 2nd edition}, ISBN 0-13-235416-0. Also available in
          German: \b{C++ GUI Programmierung mit Qt 4: Die offizielle Einf├╝hrung},
          \e{Addison-Wesley}, ISBN 3-827327-29-6
       \li \b{The Book of Qt4, The Art of Building Qt Applications} / Daniel Molkentin,
          \e{Open Source Press}, ISBN 1-59327-147-6.
          Translated from \b{Qt 4, Einf├╝hrung in die Applikationsentwicklung},
          \e{Open Source Press}, ISBN 3-937514-12-0.
       \li \b{Foundations of Qt Development} / Johan Thelin, \e{Apress}, ISBN 1-59059-831-8.
       \li \b{Advanced Qt Programming} / Mark Summerfield, \e{Prentice Hall}, ISBN 0-321-63590-6.
          This book covers Model/View programming on more than 150 pages. 
    \endlist

    More information about these books is available on the
    \l{Books about Qt Programming}{Qt Web site}.

    The following list provides an overview of example programs contained in the first three
    books listed above. Some of them make very good templates for developing similar
    applications.

    \table
        \header
            \li  Example name
            \li  View class used
            \li  Model used
            \li  Aspects covered
            \li
        \row
            \li  Team Leaders
            \li  QListview
            \li  QStringListModel
            \li
            \li  Book 1, Chapter 10, Figure 10.6
        \row
            \li  Directory Viewer
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  QDirModel
            \li
            \li  Book 1, Chapter 10, Figure 10.7
        \row
            \li  Color Names
            \li  QListView
            \li  QSortFilterProxyModel
                applied to QStringListModel
            \li
            \li  Book 1, Chapter 10, Figure 10.8
        \row
            \li  Currencies
            \li  QTableView
            \li  custom model based on
                QAbstractTableModel
            \li  Read only
            \li  Book 1, Chapter 10, Figure 10.10
        \row
            \li  Cities
            \li  QTableView
            \li  Custom model based on
                QAbstractTableModel
            \li  Read / write
            \li  Book 1, Chapter 10, Figure 10.12
        \row
            \li  Boolean Parser
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  Custom model based on
                QAbstractItemModel
            \li  Read only
            \li  Book 1, Chapter 10, Figure 10.14
        \row
            \li  Track Editor
            \li  {2, 1} QTableWidget
            \li  Custom delegate providing a custom editor
            \li  Book 1, Chapter 10, Figure 10.15

        \row
            \li  Four directory views
            \li  QListView
                QTableView
                QTreeView
            \li  QDirModel
            \li  Demonstrates the use of multiple views
            \li  Book2, Chapter 8.2
        \row
            \li  Address Book
            \li  QListView
                QTableView
                QTreeView
            \li  Custom model based on
                QAbstractTableModel
            \li  Read / write
            \li  Book2, Chapter 8.4
        \row
            \li  Address Book with sorting
            \li
            \li  QSortfilterProxyModel
            \li  Introducing sort and filter capabilities
            \li  Book2, Chapter 8.5
        \row
            \li  Address Book
                with checkboxes
            \li
            \li
            \li  Introducing checkboxes in model/view
            \li  Book2, Chapter 8.6
        \row
            \li  Address Book with transposed grid
            \li
            \li  Custom proxy Model based on QAbstractProxyModel
            \li  Introducing a custom model
            \li  Book2, Chapter 8.7
        \row
            \li  Address Book with drag and drop
            \li
            \li
            \li  Introducing drag and drop support
            \li  Book2, Chapter 8.8
        \row
            \li  Address Book with custom editor
            \li
            \li
            \li  Introducing custom delegates
            \li  Book2, Chapter 8.9
        \row
            \li  Views
            \li  QListView
                QTableView
                QTreeView
            \li  QStandardItemModel
            \li  Read only
            \li  Book 3, Chapter 5, figure 5-3
        \row
            \li  Bardelegate
            \li  QTableView
            \li
            \li  Custom delegate for presentation based on QAbstractItemDelegate
            \li  Book 3, Chapter 5, figure 5-5
        \row
            \li  Editdelegate
            \li  QTableView
            \li
            \li  Custom delegate for editing based on QAbstractItemDelegate
            \li  Book 3, Chapter 5, figure 5-6
        \row
            \li  Singleitemview
            \li  Custom view based on QAbstractItemView
            \li
            \li  Custom view
            \li  Book 3,
                Chapter 5,
                figure 5-7
        \row
            \li  listmodel
            \li  QTableView
            \li  Custom Model based on QAbstractTableModel
            \li  Read only
            \li  Book 3, Chapter 5, Figure 5-8
        \row
            \li  treemodel
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  Custom Model based on QAbstractItemModel
            \li  Read only
            \li  Book 3, Chapter 5, Figure 5-10
        \row
            \li  edit integers
            \li  QListView
            \li  Custom Model based on QAbstractListModel
            \li  Read / write
            \li  Book 3, Chapter 5, Listing 5-37, Figure 5-11
        \row
            \li  sorting
            \li  QTableView
            \li  QSortFilterProxyModel applied to QStringListModel
            \li  Demonstrates sorting
            \li  Book 3, Chapter 5, Figure 5-12
    \endtable


    \section2 4.2 Qt Documentation

    Qt 5.0 comes with 19 examples for model/view.
    The examples can be found on the \l{Item Views Examples} page.

    \table
        \header
            \li  Example name
            \li  View class used
            \li  Model used
            \li  Aspects covered
        \row
            \li  Address Book
            \li  QTableView
            \li  QAbstractTableModel
                QSortFilterProxyModel
            \li  Usage of QSortFilterProxyModel to generate different
                subsets from one data pool
        \row
            \li  Basic Sort/Filter Model
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  QStandardItemModel
                QSortFilterProxyModel
            \li
        \row
            \li  Chart
            \li  Custom view
            \li  QStandardItemModel
            \li  Designing custom views that cooperate with selection models
        \row
            \li  Color Editor Factory
            \li  {2, 1}  QTableWidget
            \li  Enhancing the standard delegate with a new custom editor to choose colours
        \row
            \li  Combo Widget Mapper
            \li  QDataWidgetMapper to map QLineEdit, QTextEdit and QComboBox
            \li  QStandardItemModel
            \li  Shows how a QComboBox can serve as a view class
        \row
            \li  Custom Sort/Filter Model
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  QStandardItemModel
                QSortFilterProxyModel
            \li  Subclass QSortFilterProxyModel for advanced sorting and filtering
        \row
            \li  Dir View
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  QDirModel
            \li  Very small example to demonstrate how to assign a model to a view
        \row
            \li  Editable Tree Model
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  Custom tree model
            \li  Comprehensive example for working with trees, demonstrates
                editing cells and tree structure with an underlying custom
                model
        \row
            \li  Fetch More
            \li  QListView
            \li  Custom list model
            \li  Dynamically changing model
        \row
            \li  Frozen Column
            \li  QTableView
            \li  QStandardItemModel
            \li
        \row
            \li  Interview
            \li  Multiple
            \li  Custom item model
            \li  Multiple views
        \row
            \li  Pixelator
            \li  QTableView
            \li  Custom table model
            \li  Implementation of a custom delegate
        \row
            \li  Puzzle
            \li  QListView
            \li  Custom list model
            \li  Model/view with drag and drop
        \row
            \li  Simple DOM Model
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  Custom tree model
            \li  Read only example for a custom tree model
        \row
            \li  Simple Tree Model
            \li  QTreeView
            \li  Custom tree model
            \li  Read only example for a custom tree model
        \row
            \li  Simple Widget Mapper
            \li  QDataWidgetMapper to map QLineEdit, QTextEdit and QSpinBox
            \li  QStandardItemModel
            \li  Basic QDataWidgetMapper usage
        \row
            \li  Spin Box Delegate
            \li  QTableView
            \li  QStandardItemModel
            \li  Custom delegate that uses a spin box as a cell editor
        \row
            \li  Spreadsheet
            \li  {2, 1}  QTableView
            \li  Custom delegates
        \row
            \li  Star Delegate
            \li  {2, 1}  QTableWidget
            \li  Comprehensive custom delegate example.
    \endtable

    A \l{Model/View Programming}{reference document} for model/view technology
    is also available.
*/

/*!
    \page modelview-part2-main-cpp.html
    \title main.cpp
    \quotefile tutorials/modelview/1_readonly/main.cpp
*/