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/****************************************************************************
**
** Copyright (C) 2017 The Qt Company Ltd.
** Contact: https://www.qt.io/licensing/
**
** This file is part of the documentation of the Qt Toolkit.
**
** $QT_BEGIN_LICENSE:FDL$
** Commercial License Usage
** Licensees holding valid commercial Qt licenses may use this file in
** accordance with the commercial license agreement provided with the
** Software or, alternatively, in accordance with the terms contained in
** a written agreement between you and The Qt Company. For licensing terms
** and conditions see https://www.qt.io/terms-conditions. For further
** information use the contact form at https://www.qt.io/contact-us.
**
** GNU Free Documentation License Usage
** Alternatively, this file may be used under the terms of the GNU Free
** Documentation License version 1.3 as published by the Free Software
** Foundation and appearing in the file included in the packaging of
** this file. Please review the following information to ensure
** the GNU Free Documentation License version 1.3 requirements
** will be met: https://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl-1.3.html.
** $QT_END_LICENSE$
**
****************************************************************************/
/*!
\page qtqml-cppintegration-definetypes.html
\title Defining QML Types from C++
\brief Description of ways to define QML object types from C++ code

When extending QML with C++ code, a C++ class can be registered with the QML
type system to enable the class to be used as a data type within QML code.
While the properties, methods and signals of any QObject-derived class are
accessible from QML, as discussed in \l{qtqml-cppintegration-exposecppattributes.html}
{Exposing Attributes of C++ Types to QML}, such a class cannot be used as a
data type from QML until it is registered with the type system. Additionally
registration can provide other features, such as allowing a class to be used
as an instantiable \l{qtqml-typesystem-objecttypes.html}{QML object type} from
QML, or enabling a singleton instance of the class to be imported and used
from QML.

Additionally, the \l {Qt QML} module provides mechanisms for implementing QML-specific
features such as \e{attached properties} and \e{default properties} in C++.

(Note that a number of the important concepts covered in this document are
demonstrated in the \l{Writing QML Extensions with C++} tutorial.)


\section1 Registering C++ Types with the QML Type System

A QObject-derived class can be registered with the QML type system to enable the
type to be used as a data type from within QML code.

The engine allows the registration of both instantiable and non-instantiable
types. Registering an instantiable type enables a C++ class to be used as the
definition of a QML object type, allowing it to be used in object declarations
from QML code to create objects of this type. Registration also provides
the engine with additional type metadata, enabling the type (and any enums
declared by the class) to be used as a data type for property values, method
parameters and return values, and signal parameters that are exchanged between
QML and C++.

Registering a non-instantiable type also registers the class as a data type in
this manner, but the type cannot be used instantiated as a QML object type
from QML. This is useful, for example, if a type has enums that should be
exposed to QML but the type itself should not be instantiable.

For a quick guide to choosing the correct approach to expose C++ types to QML,
see \l {Choosing the Correct Integration Method Between C++ and QML}.

\section2 Registering an Instantiable Object Type

\b{Any QObject-derived C++ class can be registered as the definition of a
\l{qtqml-typesystem-objecttypes.html}{QML object type}}. Once a
class is registered with the QML type system, the class can be declared and
instantiated like any other object type from QML code. Once created, a
class instance can be manipulated from QML; as
\l{qtqml-cppintegration-exposecppattributes.html}{Exposing Attributes of C++
Types to QML} explains, the properties, methods and signals of any
QObject-derived class are accessible from QML code.

To register a QObject-derived class as an instantiable QML object type, call
qmlRegisterType() to register the class as QML type into a particular type
namespace.  Clients can then import that namespace in order to use the type.

For example, suppose there is a \c Message class with \c author and
\c creationDate properties:

\code
class Message : public QObject
{
    Q_OBJECT
    Q_PROPERTY(QString author READ author WRITE setAuthor NOTIFY authorChanged)
    Q_PROPERTY(QDateTime creationDate READ creationDate WRITE setCreationDate NOTIFY creationDateChanged)
public:
    // ...
};
\endcode

This type can be registered by calling qmlRegisterType() with an appropriate
type namespace and version number. For example, to make the type available in
the \c com.mycompany.messaging namespace with version 1.0:

\code
qmlRegisterType<Message>("com.mycompany.messaging", 1, 0, "Message");
\endcode

The type can be used in an \l{qtqml-syntax-basics.html#object-declarations}
{object declaration} from QML, and its properties can be read and written to,
as per the example below:

\qml
import com.mycompany.messaging 1.0

Message {
    author: "Amelie"
    creationDate: new Date()
}
\endqml


\section2 Registering Non-Instantiable Types

Sometimes a QObject-derived class may need to be registered with the QML type
system but not as an instantiable type. For example, this is the case if a C++
class:

\list
\li is an interface type that should not be instantiable
\li is a base class type that does not need to be exposed to QML
\li declares some enum that should be accessible from QML, but otherwise should
not be instantiable
\li is a type that should be provided to QML through a singleton instance, and
should not be instantiable from QML
\endlist

The \l {Qt QML} module provides several methods for registering non-instantiable
types:

\list
\li qmlRegisterType() (with no parameters) registers a C++ type that is not
instantiable and cannot be referred to from QML. This enables the engine to
coerce any inherited types that are instantiable from QML.
\li qmlRegisterInterface() registers an existing Qt interface type. The type is
not instantiable from QML, and you cannot declare QML properties with it. Using
C++ properties of this type from QML will do the expected interface casts,
though.
\li qmlRegisterUncreatableType() registers a named C++ type that is not
instantiable but should be identifiable as a type to the QML type system. This
is useful if a type's enums or attached properties should be accessible from QML
but the type itself should not be instantiable.
\li qmlRegisterSingletonType() registers a singleton type that can be imported
from QML, as discussed below.
\endlist

Note that all C++ types registered with the QML type system must be
QObject-derived, even if they are non-instantiable.


\section3 Registering Singleton Objects with a Singleton Type

A singleton type enables properties, signals and methods to be exposed in
a namespace without requiring the client to manually instantiate an
object instance. QObject singleton types in particular are an efficient and
convenient way to provide functionality or global property values.

Note that singleton types do not have an associated QQmlContext as they are
shared across all contexts in an engine.  QObject singleton type instances
are constructed and owned by the QQmlEngine, and will be destroyed when
the engine is destroyed.

A QObject singleton type can be interacted with in a manner similar to any
other QObject or instantiated type, except that only one (engine constructed
and owned) instance will exist, and it must be referenced by type name rather
than id.  Q_PROPERTYs of QObject singleton types may be bound to, and Q_INVOKABLE
functions of QObject module APIs may be used in signal handler expressions.
This makes singleton types an ideal way to implement styling or theming, and
they can also be used instead of ".pragma library" script imports to store global
state or to provide global functionality.

Once registered, a QObject singleton type may be imported and used like any
other QObject instance exposed to QML.  The following example assumes that
a QObject singleton type was registered into the "MyThemeModule" namespace
with version 1.0, where that QObject has a QColor "color" Q_PROPERTY:

\qml
import MyThemeModule 1.0 as Theme

Rectangle {
    color: Theme.color // binding.
}
\endqml

A QJSValue may also be exposed as a singleton type, however clients should
be aware that properties of such a singleton type cannot be bound to.

See \l{qmlRegisterSingletonType()} for more information on how implement and
register a new singleton type, and how to use an existing singleton type.

\note Enum values for registered types in QML should start with a capital.

\section2 Type Revisions and Versions

Many of the type registration functions require versions to be specified
for the registered type. Type revisions and versions allow new properties
or methods to exist in the new version while remaining compatible with
previous versions.

Consider these two QML files:
\code
// main.qml
import QtQuick 1.0

Item {
    id: root
    MyType {}
}
\endcode

\code
// MyType.qml
import MyTypes 1.0

CppType {
    value: root.x
}
\endcode

where \c CppType maps to the C++ class \c CppType.

If the author of CppType adds a \c root property to CppType in a new
version of their type definition, \c root.x now resolves to a different value
because \c root is also the \c id of the top level component. The author could
specify that the new \c root property is available from a specific minor
version. This permits new properties and features to be added to existing
types without breaking existing programs.

The REVISION tag is used to mark the \c root property as added in revision 1
of the type. Methods such as Q_INVOKABLE's, signals and slots can also be
tagged for a revision using the \c Q_REVISION(x) macro:

\code
class CppType : public BaseType
{
    Q_OBJECT
    Q_PROPERTY(int root READ root WRITE setRoot NOTIFY rootChanged REVISION 1)

signals:
    Q_REVISION(1) void rootChanged();
};
\endcode

To register the new class revision to a particular version the following
function is used:

\code
template<typename T, int metaObjectRevision>
int qmlRegisterType(const char *uri, int versionMajor, int versionMinor, const char *qmlName)
\endcode

To register \c CppType version 1 for \c {MyTypes 1.1}:

\code
qmlRegisterType<CppType,1>("MyTypes", 1, 1, "CppType")
\endcode

\c root is only available when \c MyTypes version 1.1 is imported.

For the same reason, new types introduced in later versions should use
the minor version argument of qmlRegisterType.

This feature of the language allows for behavioural changes to be made
without breaking existing applications. Consequently QML module authors
should always remember to document what changed between minor versions, and
QML module users should check that their application still runs correctly
before deploying an updated import statement.

You may also register the revision of a base class that your type depends
upon using the qmlRegisterRevision() function:

\code
template<typename T, int metaObjectRevision>
int qmlRegisterRevision(const char *uri, int versionMajor, int versionMinor)

template<typename T, int metaObjectRevision>
int qmlRegisterUncreatableType(const char *uri, int versionMajor, int versionMinor, const char *qmlName, const QString& reason)

template<typename T, typename E, int metaObjectRevision>
int qmlRegisterExtendedUncreatableType(const char *uri, int versionMajor, int versionMinor, const char *qmlName, const QString& reason)
\endcode

For example, if \c BaseType is changed and now has a revision 1, you can
specify that your type uses the new revision:

\code
qmlRegisterRevision<BaseType,1>("MyTypes", 1, 1);
\endcode

This is useful when deriving from base classes provided by other authors,
e.g. when extending classes from the Qt Quick module.

\note The QML engine does not support revisions for properties or signals of
grouped and attached property objects.

\section2 Registering Extension Objects

When integrating existing classes and technology into QML, APIs will
often need tweaking to fit better into the declarative environment.
Although the best results are usually obtained by modifying the original
classes directly, if this is either not possible or is complicated by some
other concerns, extension objects allow limited extension possibilities
without direct modifications.

\e{Extension objects} add additional properties to an existing type. Extension
objects can only add properties, not signals or methods. An extended type
definition allows the programmer to supply an additional type, known as the
\e{extension type}, when registering the class. The properties are transparently
merged with the original target class when used from within QML. For example:

\snippet referenceexamples/extended/example.qml 0

The \c leftMargin property is a new property added to an existing C++ type, \l
QLineEdit, without modifying its source code.

The \l {QQmlEngine::}{qmlRegisterExtendedType()} function is for registering extended types.
Note that it has two forms.

\code
template<typename T, typename ExtendedT>
int qmlRegisterExtendedType(const char *uri, int versionMajor, int versionMinor, const char *qmlName)

template<typename T, typename ExtendedT>
int qmlRegisterExtendedType()
\endcode

This functions should be used instead of the regular \c qmlRegisterType()
variations. The arguments are identical to the corresponding non-extension
registration functions, except for the ExtendedT parameter which is the type of
the extension object.

An extension class is a regular QObject, with a constructor that takes a QObject
pointer. However, the extension class creation is delayed until the first
extended property is accessed. The extension class is created and the target
object is passed in as the parent. When the property on the original is
accessed, the corresponding property on the extension object is used instead.

The \l{Extending QML - Extension Objects Example}{Extension Objects Example}
demonstrates a usage of extension objects.


\section1 Defining QML-Specific Types and Attributes

\section2 Providing Attached Properties
\keyword Integrating QML and C++ - Attached Properties

In the QML language syntax, there is a notion of \l{Attached properties and
attached signal handlers}{\e {attached properties} and \e {attached signal
handlers}}, which are additional attributes that are attached to an object.
Essentially, such attributes are implemented and provided by an \e {attaching
type}, and these attributes may be \e attached to an object of another type.
This contrasts with ordinary object properties which are provided by the object
type itself (or the object's inherited type).

For example, the \l Item below uses attached properties and attached handlers:

\qml
import QtQuick 2.0

Item {
    width: 100; height: 100

    focus: true
    Keys.enabled: false
    Keys.onReturnPressed: console.log("Return key was pressed")
}
\endqml

Here, the \l Item object is able to access and set the values of \c Keys.enabled
and \c Keys.onReturnPressed. This allows the \l Item object to access these
extra attributes as an extension to its own existing attributes.

\section3 Steps for Implementing Attached Objects

When considering the above example, there are several parties involved:

\list
\li There is an instance of an anonymous \e {attached object type}, with
an \c enabled and a \c returnPressed signal, that has been attached to the
\l Item object to enable it to access and set these attributes.
\li The \l Item object is the \e {attachee}, to which the instance of the \e
{attached object type} has been attached.
\li \l Keys is the \e {attaching type}, which provides the \e {attachee} with a
named qualifier, "Keys", through which it may access the attributes of the
\e {attached object type}.
\endlist

When the QML engine processes this code, it creates a single instance of the
\e {attached object type} and attaches this instance to the \l Item object,
thereby providing it with access to the \c enabled and \c returnPressed
attributes of the instance.

The mechanisms for providing attached objects can be implemented from C++ by
providing classes for the \e {attached object type} and \e {attaching type}.
For the \e{attached object type}, provide a QObject-derived class that defines
the attributes to be made accessible to \e attachee objects. For the
\e {attaching type}, provide a QObject-derived class that:

\list
\li implements a static qmlAttachedProperties() with the following signature:
    \code
    static <AttachedPropertiesType> *qmlAttachedProperties(QObject *object);
    \endcode

    This method should return an instance of the \e{attached object type}.

    The QML engine invokes this method in order to attach an instance of
    the attached object type to the \e attachee specified by the \c object
    parameter.  It is customary, though not strictly required, for this method
    implementation to parent the returned instance to \c object in order
    to prevent memory leaks.

    This method is called at most once by the engine for each attachee object
    instance, as the engine caches the returned instance pointer for subsequent
    attached property accesses. Consequently the attachment object may not be
    deleted until the attachee \c object is destroyed.

\li is declared as an attaching type, by calling the QML_DECLARE_TYPEINFO()
    macro with the QML_HAS_ATTACHED_PROPERTIES flag
\endlist


\section3 Implementing Attached Objects: An Example

For example, take the \c Message type described in an \l{Registering an
Instantiable Object Type}{earlier example}:

\code
class Message : public QObject
{
    Q_OBJECT
    Q_PROPERTY(QString author READ author WRITE setAuthor NOTIFY authorChanged)
    Q_PROPERTY(QDateTime creationDate READ creationDate WRITE setCreationDate NOTIFY creationDateChanged)
public:
    // ...
};
\endcode

Suppose it is necessary to trigger a signal on a \c Message when it is
published to a message board, and also track when the message has expired on
the message board. Since it doesn't make sense to add these attributes
directly to a \c Message, as the attributes are more relevant to the message
board context, they could be implemented as \e attached attributes on a
\c Message object that are provided through a "MessageBoard" qualifier. In
terms of the concepts described earlier, the parties involved here are:

\list
\li An instance of an anonymous \e{attached object type}, which provides a
    \c published signal and an expired property. This type is implemented by
    \c MessageBoardAttachedType below
\li A \c Message object, which will be the \e attachee
\li The \c MessageBoard type, which will be the \e {attaching type} that is
    used by \c Message objects to access the attached attributes
\endlist

Following is an example implementation. First, there needs to be an
\e {attached object type} with the necessary properties and signals that
will be accessible to the \e attachee:

\code
class MessageBoardAttachedType : public QObject
{
    Q_OBJECT
    Q_PROPERTY(bool expired READ expired WRITE setExpired NOTIFY expiredChanged)
public:
    MessageBoardAttachedType(QObject *parent);
    bool expired() const;
    void setExpired(bool expired);
signals:
    void published();
    void expiredChanged();
};
\endcode

Then the \e {attaching type}, \c MessageBoard, must declare a \c
qmlAttachedProperties() method that returns an instance of the
\e {attached object type} as implemented by MessageBoardAttachedType.
Additionally, \c Message board must be declared as an attached type
through the QML_DECLARE_TYPEINFO() macro:

\code
class MessageBoard : public QObject
{
    Q_OBJECT
public:
    static MessageBoardAttachedType *qmlAttachedProperties(QObject *object)
    {
        return new MessageBoardAttachedType(object);
    }
};
QML_DECLARE_TYPEINFO(MessageBoard, QML_HAS_ATTACHED_PROPERTIES)
\endcode

Now, a \c Message type can access the properties and signals of the attached
object type:

\qml
Message {
    author: "Amelie"
    creationDate: new Date()

    MessageBoard.expired: creationDate < new Date("January 01, 2015 10:45:00")
    MessageBoard.onPublished: console.log("Message by", author, "has been
published!")
}
\endqml

Additionally, the C++ implementation may access the attached object instance
that has been attached to any object by calling the
qmlAttachedPropertiesObject() function.

For example:

\code
Message *msg = someMessageInstance();
MessageBoardAttachedType *attached =
        qobject_cast<MessageBoardAttachedType*>(qmlAttachedPropertiesObject<MessageBoard>(msg));

qDebug() << "Value of MessageBoard.expired:" << attached->expired();
\endcode


\section2 Property Modifier Types

A property modifier type is a special kind of QML object type.  A property
modifier type instance affects a property (of a QML object instance) which it
is applied to.  There are two different kinds of property modifier types:
\list
\li property value write interceptors
\li property value sources
\endlist

A property value write interceptor can be used to filter or modify values as
they are written to properties.  Currently, the only supported property
value write interceptor is the \l Behavior type provided by the \c QtQuick
import.

A property value source can be used to automatically update the value of a
property over time.  Clients can define their own property value source types.
The various \l{qtquick-statesanimations-animations.html}{property animation}
types provided by the \c QtQuick import are examples of property value
sources.

Property modifier type instances can be created and applied to a property of
a QML object through the "<ModifierType> on <propertyName>" syntax, as the
following example shows:

\qml
import QtQuick 2.0

Item {
    width: 400
    height: 50

    Rectangle {
        width: 50
        height: 50
        color: "red"

        NumberAnimation on x {
            from: 0
            to: 350
            loops: Animation.Infinite
            duration: 2000
        }
    }
}
\endqml

Clients can register their own property value source types, but currently not
property value write interceptors.

\section3 Property Value Sources

\e {Property value sources} are QML types that can automatically update the
value of a property over time, using the
\c {<PropertyValueSource> on <property>} syntax. For example, the various
\l{qtquick-statesanimations-animations.html}{property animation} types
provided by the \c QtQuick module are examples of property value sources.

A property value source can be implemented in C++ by subclassing
QQmlPropertyValueSource and providing an implementation that writes different
values to a property over time. When the property value source is applied to a
property using the \c {<PropertyValueSource> on <property>} syntax in QML, it
is given a reference to this property by the engine so that the property value
can be updated.

For example, suppose there is a \c RandomNumberGenerator class to be made
available as a property value source, so that when applied to a QML property,
it will update the property value to a different random number every 500
milliseconds. Additionally, a maxValue can be provided to this random number
generator. This class can be implemented as follows:

\code
class RandomNumberGenerator : public QObject, public QQmlPropertyValueSource
{
    Q_OBJECT
    Q_INTERFACES(QQmlPropertyValueSource)
    Q_PROPERTY(int maxValue READ maxValue WRITE setMaxValue NOTIFY maxValueChanged);
public:
    RandomNumberGenerator(QObject *parent)
        : QObject(parent), m_maxValue(100)
    {
        QObject::connect(&m_timer, SIGNAL(timeout()), SLOT(updateProperty()));
        m_timer.start(500);
    }

    int maxValue() const;
    void setMaxValue(int maxValue);

    virtual void setTarget(const QQmlProperty &prop) { m_targetProperty = prop; }

signals:
    void maxValueChanged();

private slots:
    void updateProperty() {
        m_targetProperty.write(QRandomGenerator::global()->bounded(m_maxValue));
    }

private:
    QQmlProperty m_targetProperty;
    QTimer m_timer;
    int m_maxValue;
};
\endcode

When the QML engine encounters a use of \c RandomNumberGenerator as a property
value source, it invokes \c RandomNumberGenerator::setTarget() to provide the
type with the property to which the value source has been applied. When the
internal timer in \c RandomNumberGenerator triggers every 500 milliseconds,
it will write a new number value to that specified property.

Once the \c RandomNumberGenerator class has been registered with the QML type
system, it can be used from QML as a property value source. Below, it is used
to change the width of a \l Rectangle every 500 milliseconds:

\qml
import QtQuick 2.0

Item {
    width: 300; height: 300

    Rectangle {
        RandomNumberGenerator on width { maxValue: 300 }

        height: 100
        color: "red"
    }
}
\endqml

In all other respects, property value sources are regular QML types that can
have properties, signals methods and so on, but with the added capability that
they can be used to change property values using the
\c {<PropertyValueSource> on <property>} syntax.

When a property value source object is assigned to a property, QML first tries
to assign it normally, as though it were a regular QML type.  Only if this
assignment fails does the engine call the \l
{QQmlPropertyValueSource::}{setTarget()} method.  This allows
the type to also be used in contexts other than just as a value source.


\section2 Specifying Default Properties for QML Object Types

Any QObject-derived type that is registered as an instantiable QML object type
can optionally specify a \e {default property} for the type. A default
property is the property to which an object's children are automatically
assigned if they are not assigned to any specific property.

The default property can be set by calling the Q_CLASSINFO() macro for a class
with a specific "DefaultProperty" value. For example, the \c MessageBoard
class below specifies its \c messages property as the default property for the
class:

\code
class MessageBoard : public QObject
{
    Q_OBJECT
    Q_PROPERTY(QQmlListProperty<Message> messages READ messages)
    Q_CLASSINFO("DefaultProperty", "messages")
public:
    QQmlListProperty<Message> messages();

private:
    QList<Message *> m_messages;
};
\endcode

This enables children of a \c MessageBoard object to be automatically assigned
to its \c messages property if they are not assigned to a specific property. For
example:

\qml
MessageBoard {
    Message { author: "Naomi" }
    Message { author: "Clancy" }
}
\endqml

If \c messages was not set as the default property, then any \c Message objects
would have to be explicitly assigned to the \c messages property instead, as
follows:

\qml
MessageBoard {
    messages: [
        Message { author: "Naomi" },
        Message { author: "Clancy" }
    ]
}
\endqml

(Incidentally, the \l Item::data property is its default property. Any \l Item
objects added to this \c data property are also added to the list of
\l Item::children, so the use of the default property enables visual children
to be declared for an item without explicitly assigning them to the
\l{Item::}{children} property.)


\section2 Defining Visual Items with the Qt Quick Module

When building user interfaces with the \l {Qt Quick} module, all QML objects that are
to be visually rendered must derive from the \l Item type, as it is the base
type for all visual objects in \l {Qt Quick}. This \l Item type is
implemented by the QQuickItem C++ class, which is provided by the
\l {Qt Quick} module. Therefore, this class should be subclassed when it is
necessary to implement a visual type in C++ that can be integrated into a
QML-based user interface.

See the QQuickItem documentation for more information. Additionally, the
\l{Writing QML Extensions with C++} tutorial demonstrates how a QQuickItem-based
visual item can be implemented in C++ and integrated into a Qt Quick-based user
interface.


\section1 Receiving Notifications for Object Initialization

For some custom QML object types, it may be beneficial to delay the
initialization of particular data until the object has been created and all of
its properties have been set. For example, this may be the case if the
initialization is costly, or if the initialization should not be performed until
all property values have been initialized.

The \l {Qt QML} module provides the QQmlParserStatus to be subclassed for these
purposes. It defines a number of virtual methods that are invoked at
various stages during component instantiation. To receive these notifications, a
C++ class should inherit QQmlParserStatus and also notify the Qt meta system
using the Q_INTERFACES() macro.

For example:

\code
class MyQmlType : public QObject, public QQmlParserStatus
{
    Q_OBJECT
    Q_INTERFACES(QQmlParserStatus)
public:
    virtual void componentComplete()
    {
        // Perform some initialization here now that the object is fully created
    }
};
\endcode

*/